Since the works by T.H. Marshall back in the Fifties, the concept of "citizenship" has undergone continuous revisions from many disciplinary perspectives (philosophy, social sciences, political sciences, law, pedagogy...). Its history in the XX Century is another face of the huge material changes in human interdependence that we use to call "globalization" - a far older process, in reality, which in a certain way traces back its origins to the very biological position of Hominidae (not just our species!) in life evolution. Despite the rich and rageous debate about citizenship and the construction of institutional frameworks beyond and inside the old "sovereign State" model (the "Myth of the State", as Cassirer put it), citizenship still needs to be reconsidered and deserves new studies both as a normative concept and as a key institutionalized category that decisively shapes society. This means delving into the biological, psychological, and social dimensions of "identity" and "belongings", "people(s)", the "group-individual" relationship, "sovereignty", "self-determination", "cooperation/competition/unity" as key legitimizing framework concepts for today State structures and international relations. The partly discovery and partly construction of global interdependence (well beyond humanity) does not just need a cosmopolitan turn in our culture and practices, it urgently calls for multi-level, multi-dimensional, multi-scales approaches in every sphere.